Staline, notre contemporain

NEW HAVEN – Il y a quatre-vingt ans, à l’automne de l’année 1930, Joseph Staline a mis en place une politique qui a changé le cours de l’histoire, entrainant des dizaines de millions de morts pendant des décennies à travers le monde. Dans une violente campagne massive de « collectivisation », il a ramené l’agriculture soviétique sous le contrôle de l’état.

Staline a maintenu le collectivisme malgré la résistance massive qui s’était exprimée à la suite de la première tentative des autorités soviétiques pour imposer cette politique au cours du printemps précédent. Fusillades et déportations au Goulag étaient les méthodes utilisées par les autorités soviétiques pour réprimer toute opposition. Les citoyens soviétiques ont pourtant résisté en grand nombre ; les nomades Kazakhs ont fuit vers la Chine, les fermiers Polonais, vers l’Ukraine.

A l’automne, les fusillades et les déportations reprirent, associées à la coercition économique. Les fermiers individuels étaient taxés jusqu’à ce qu’ils acceptent d’intégrer le collectif et les fermes collectives étaient autorisées à saisir les graines de semence des fermiers individuels, utilisées pour planter la récolte de l’année suivante.

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