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Великая стагнация доходов

БЕРКЛИ – В наши дни дискуссии о неравенстве часто фокусируются на непропорциональном сосредоточении доходов и богатства в руках очень незначительной части домохозяйств в США и других развитых странах. Меньше внимания обращают на другую, но не менее разрушительную, тенденцию – падение или стагнация доходов у основной части домохозяйств.

На протяжении большей части послевоенного периода – до 2000-х годов – уверенный рост ВВП и занятости в развитых странах приводил к тому, что практически у всех домохозяйств наблюдался рост доходов, причём как с учётом налогов и государственных пособий, так и без них. Благодаря этому, каждое новое поколение росло в уверенности, что будет жить лучше, чем родители. Однако, по данным нового исследования Глобального института McKinsey (McKinsey Global Institute, MGI), такая уверенность больше не выглядит вполне оправданной.

За последнее десятилетие у большинства домохозяйств в развитых странах рост доходов резко остановился, причём больше всего пострадали домохозяйства одиноких женщин и молодых, недостаточно образованных работников. В 25 развитых странах примерно две трети домохозяйств, принадлежащих к той же категории по уровню доходов, столкнулись с тем, что в 2014 году их реальные доходы от труда и операций с капиталом были меньше, чем в 2005 году. Речь идёт о более чем 500 млн человек. Напротив, с 1993 по 2005 годы лишь менее чем у 2% домохозяйств этих стран доходы не росли или падали.

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