La stagflation arrive !

New York – L'économie mondiale a connu quelques bonnes années. La croissance a été forte, le fossé entre les pays développés et les pays en développement s'est rétréci, l'Inde et la Chine ouvrant la voie avec une croissance de leur PIB de 11,1% et 9,7% en 2006 et de 11,5 et 8,9% en 2007 respectivement. Même l'Afrique ne s'en est pas si mal sortie, avec un taux de croissance supérieur à 5% en 2006 et en 2007.

Mais la période faste touche peut-être à sa fin. On s'inquiète depuis des années du déséquilibre général causé par les énormes emprunts américains à l'étranger. L'Amérique dit que le monde devrait la remercier : en vivant au-dessus de ses moyens, elle a soutenu l'économie mondiale, notamment grâce aux taux d'épargne en Asie, qui a accumulé des milliards de dollars en réserve. Mais il était évident que la croissance de l'Amérique sous Georges Bush ne pouvait durer longtemps. L'instant de vérité est arrivé.

La malencontreuse guerre américaine en Irak a participé à la multiplication par quatre du prix du pétrole depuis 2003. Durant les années 1970, les chocs pétroliers ont engendré l'inflation dans certains pays et à la récession dans d'autres, alors que les gouvernements augmentaient les taux d'intérêt pour combattre la hausse des prix. Certaines économies ont eu à faire face au pire des deux fléaux : la stagflation.

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