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chellaney117_Ishara S.KODIKARAAFPGetty Images_srilankapresidentmilitary Ishara S. Kodikara/AFP/Getty Images

斯里兰卡民主消亡?

科伦坡—亚洲最古老的民主国家之一可能正处于危险之中。下个月的斯里兰卡总统选举可能会把权力移交到拉贾帕克萨(Rajapaksa)家族的新成员手中。众所周知,拉贾帕克萨家族与极权主义、暴力和腐败有着千丝万缕的联系。斯里兰卡民主经受住了上一次考验——即将下台的总统西里塞纳一年前谋划的宪政政变——但可能无法摆脱戈塔巴亚·拉贾帕克萨(Gotabaya Rajapaksa)当总统。

称名行世的戈塔巴亚目前在总统竞选中处于领先,此前他在其兄、西里塞纳的前任马辛达·拉贾帕克萨(Mahinda Rajapaksa)丹戎总统期间曾出任斯里兰卡国防部长。马辛达在任长达十年,2015年才下台,其间大行裙带主义盛行,拉贾帕克萨的四位兄弟把持了多个政府部长之位,还控制着80%的总公共支出。马辛达逐步扩大总统权力,形成了准独裁体制,以侵犯人权和战争罪指控而臭名昭著。

此外,马辛达的亲中外交政策使得中国迅速扩大了其在斯里兰卡的影响力,也让斯里兰卡对华债务迅速增加。在上一个拉贾帕克萨总统任期内所发生的债务迫使西里塞纳在2017年将印度洋最重要的战略港口汉班托塔港连同周边6070公顷土地租让给中国99年。这一类似香港的割让行为效仿了十九世纪英国对中国的殖民主义占领。

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  1. solana114_FADEL SENNAAFP via Getty Images_libyaprotestflag Fadel Senna/AFP via Getty Images

    Relieving Libya’s Agony

    Javier Solana

    The credibility of all external actors in the Libyan conflict is now at stake. The main domestic players will lower their maximalist pretensions only when their foreign supporters do the same, ending hypocrisy once and for all and making a sincere effort to find room for consensus.

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