Le cauchemar procustéen de l'Europe

MANNHEIM – La volonté de l'UE de sauver l'euro à tout prix garantit la survie de la monnaie unique. Mais faut-il sacrifier la compétitivité de la zone euro et en fin de compte la solidarité européenne pour maintenir une même devise dans un ensemble de pays très différents les uns des autres ?

C'est la création du marché unique en 1992 et non l'introduction de l'euro sept ans plus tard qui a permis le libre-échange, accru la compétitivité et enrichi l'Europe. Par contre, frappée par la récession, un chômage record, des troubles sociaux et la montée de la méfiance entre pays membres, l'union monétaire est devenue un cauchemar politique et économique.

Bien que les dirigeants politiques et les économistes n'aient plus guère d'argument en faveur de l'euro, peu d'entre eux osent remettre en cause sa structure de base, et encore moins proposer une alternative. Pour échapper à la crise, les dirigeants de l'UE doivent reconnaître la faiblesse du cadre unidimensionnel de la zone euro et développer un système mieux adapté à la gestion d'une union monétaire hétérogène.

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