Tsipras Merke Zhang Fan/ZumaPress

Eine Rede der Hoffnung für Griechenland

ATHEN – Am 6. September 1946 reiste der damalige US-Außenminister James F. Byrnes nach Stuttgart und hielt seine historische „Rede der Hoffnung”. Sie war der Ausdruck der veränderten amerikanischen Einstellung gegenüber Deutschland und gab einer gescheiterten Nation die Chance für Erholung, Wachstum und die Rückkehr zur Normalität. Sieben Jahrzehnte später ist es mein Land, Griechenland, das eine solche Chance braucht.

Vor Byrnes’ „Rede der Hoffnung“ waren die Alliierten entschlossen, Deutschland zu einem Land zu machen, das „in erster Linie landwirtschaftlich und ländlich geprägt ist“. Dies war im Morgenthau-Plan festgelegt, der zwei Jahre zuvor von US-Finanzminister Henry Morgenthau Jr. aufgestellt und im September 1944 von den Vereinigten Staaten und Großbritannien unterschrieben worden war.

Auch als die USA, die Sowjetunion und Großbritannien im August 1945 das Potsdam-Abkommen unterzeichneten, einigten sie sich auf „den Abbau oder die Zerstörung sämtlicher Schwerindustrie mit Kriegspotenzial“ und auf die „Umstrukturierung der deutschen Wirtschaft in Richtung Landwirtschaft und Leichtindustrie“. Bis 1946 verringerten die Alliierten die Stahlproduktion Deutschlands auf 75% des Vorkriegsniveaus. Die Automobilproduktion brach sogar auf 10% des Vorkriegswertes ein. Bis zum Ende des Jahrzehnts wurden 706 Industrieanlagen zerstört.

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