Tsipras Merke Zhang Fan/ZumaPress

Un discours d’espoir pour la Grèce

ATHÈNES – Le 6 septembre 1946, le Secrétaire d’État américain James F. Byrnes se rend à Stuttgart pour prononcer son historique « discours de l’espoir ». L’allocution de Byrnes marquera un changement de ton de la part de l’Amérique vis-à-vis de l’Allemagne, et offrira à une nation en échec l’opportunité d’entrevoir la reprise, la croissance, et le retour à la normalité. Soixante-dix ans plus tard, mon pays, la Grèce, a précisément besoin qu’une telle chance lui soit offerte.

Jusqu’au « discours de l’espoir » formulé par Byrnes, les Alliés sont déterminés à faire de l’Allemagne « une terre principalement agricole et rurale ». Il s’agit alors de l’intention exprimée dans le cadre du plan Morgenthau, élaboré par le Secrétaire du Trésor américain Henry Morgenthau Jr., et contresigné par les États-Unis et la Grande-Bretagne deux ans plus tôt, en septembre 1944.

En effet, lorsque les États-Unis, l’Union soviétique et le Royaume-Uni signent l’accord de Potsdam en août 1945, ils s’entendent sur « la réduction ou la destruction de toute industrie civile lourde présentant un potentiel de guerre », ainsi que sur une « restructuration de l’économie allemande en direction d’une industrie agricole et légère ». En 1946, les Alliés sont ainsi parvenus à réduire la production allemande d’acier de 75 % par rapport au niveau d’avant-guerre. La production automobile est désormais tombée aux alentours de 10 % du niveau d’avant-guerre. À la fin de la décennie, quelque 706 installations industrielles ont été détruites.

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