Russian Soyuz space capsule

遏制第三次空间竞赛

华盛顿—随着中国、俄罗斯和美国纷纷提升反卫星(ASAT)作战能力,第三轮空间“占领制高点”的竞争正在如火如荼地展开。这是一轮意义不同的竞争,因为出现了三个竞争者,发生在冷战期间的前两轮竞争只有两个竞争者。但是,和前两次一样,今天的空间竞赛带来了大国冲突迅速升级和加剧的风险。一些常识规则有助于缓解和预防空间冲突。不幸的是,俄罗斯和中国似乎没有兴趣参与负责任的空间旅行国家行为规则谈判。

第一次空间竞赛始于1957年,苏联发射了第一课人造地球卫星史普尼克(Sputnik)。美国总统艾森豪威尔政府选择对史普尼克及后来的几颗卫星视而不见,因为他们认为美国的空间计划能够超越苏联,不摧毁苏联卫星利大于弊。

艾森豪威尔的继任者肯尼迪持有同样观点。但他希望更进一步,与苏联共同制定了联合国空间合作决议。肯尼迪的眼界被1962年7月美国大气层核试验打开。这次核试验不经意地摧毁了至少六科人造卫星,其中一些属于苏联。几个月后,古巴导弹危机爆发,刺激了禁止大气层核试验协议的形成。1967年,美国总统约翰逊和苏联领导人勃列日涅夫在联合国决议的基础上签订外太空条约,标志着第一次空间军事竞赛的结束。

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