La Corée du Sud et le sommet du G20

CAMBRIDGE – Une occasion historique s’offrira à la Corée du Sud lorsqu’elle présidera le prochain sommet du G20 à Séoul, les 11 et 12 novembre prochains. Ce sera la première fois qu’un pays qui n’est pas membre du G7 accueille le G20, depuis que celui-ci a remplacé le G7 à la tête des affaires économiques mondiales. Mais le risque existe que le Groupe des 20 se révèle lourd à manouvrer.

La Corée du Sud considère à juste titre son rôle de pays hôte comme une nouvelle occasion d’affirmer sa position sur la scène internationale. Mais elle devrait peut-être envisager d’en faire plus et exercer un véritable leadership. Son rôle à la barre du G20 risque sinon de ressembler à la chaotique présidence tchèque de l’Union européenne en 2009, qui a confirmé l’opinion de certains grands pays de l’UE que c’était une erreur de laisser les plus petits pays assumer la direction.

La difficulté pour la Corée du Sud réside dans le compromis inévitable entre la légitimité et les capacités de fonctionnement. Le G7 était suffisamment réduit pour pouvoir fonctionner, mais l’était trop pour être légitime. Les Nations unies sont assez grandes pour être légitimes, mais le sont trop pour pouvoir fonctionner.

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