L'Asie du Sud en guerre

CAMBRIDGE – Les actions terroristes du mois dernier à Bombay ne visaient pas seulement l'économie de l'Inde et sa sécurité, elles avaient un but plus large : mettre à mal la détente indo-pakistanaise qui a commencé à se dessiner en 2004. Les agresseurs n'ont pas pris la peine de cacher leur visage et ils ne se sont pas fait sauter avec des ceintures d'explosifs. Ils n'ont pas cherché à rester anonyme, ils voulaient être reconnus comme les défenseurs d'une cause. Si cette cause n'est pas véritablement comprise et ses racines mises au jour à travers toute la région, Bombay pourrait être le début du démembrement de l'Asie du Sud.

Les conflits régionaux - ils incluent tous les pays de la région et un nombre croissant d'acteurs non-étatiques - ont conduit à l'apparition d'un grand nombre de combattants entraînés, n'attendant qu'un appel pour la gloire. Tant en Inde qu'au Pakistan, les disparités économiques et les injustices sociales sont un terreau fertile pour alimenter des conflits. Le recours à la ferveur religieuse et à son abus - qu'il s'agisse de djihad musulman ou de fondamentalisme hindou - ébranle les  bases de l'harmonie sociale à travers l'Asie du Sud.

Beaucoup des problèmes actuels trouvent leur source en Afghanistan, un pays dont l'Histoire tragique n'est jamais restée confinée à l'intérieur des frontières du pays. La dynamique de la région a changé quand les combattants afghans de la liberté des années 1980 se sont reconvertis en moudjahidin dans le cadre d'un projet criminel soutenu non sans enthousiasme tout à la fois par l'Occident et le monde musulman. Le Pakistan, toujours méfiant à l'égard de l'Inde, devint le centre de cette mutation. L'Occident croyait en avoir fini après la chute de l'empire soviétique, mais la région - et de plus en plus la communauté internationale - continuent à payer le prix fort pour ce sinistre projet.

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