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Das kapital del knowhow

JOHANNESBURGO – Hace 25 años que el apartheid llegó a su fin, y 23 desde que el Congreso Nacional Africano asumió el poder en Sudáfrica. Sin embargo, según informó el presidente Jacob Zuma en su reciente discurso sobre el estado de la nación, el control continúa estando en manos de los blancos del país. 

"Los hogares blancos ganan por lo menos cinco veces más que los negros", afirmó Zuma, y "solamente el 10% de las 100 empresas más importantes de la Bolsa de Johannesburgo son de propiedad de sudafricanos negros". Los blancos todavía representan el 72% de los altos directivos. El coeficiente Gini, una forma ampliamente utilizada de medir la desigualdad, no muestra ninguna señal de bajar y continúa siendo uno de los más altos del mundo.

Estos hechos suceden luego de 14 años de un vigoroso programa de potenciamiento económico de la población negra llamado Black Economic Empowermento  BEE, que ha creado diversos tipos de incentivos y limitaciones para impulsar la participación de dicha población en los ámbitos de propiedad, administración, control, capacitación, adquisiciones y emprendimiento. A los propietarios de acciones de raza blanca se les exigió vender acciones a personas negras mediante transacciones que a menudo estuvieron fuertemente apalancadas y fueron financiadas con fondos públicos.

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