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约翰内斯堡——种族隔离制度已经过去了1/4个世纪,非洲国民大会在南非掌权也已经持续了23年。但就像雅各布·祖玛总统在近期的国情咨文中所报告的那样,国家仍然控制在白人手中。

“白人家庭的收入至少是黑人家庭的五倍,”祖马表示,“约翰内斯堡证券交易所百强企业中仅有10%的所有者是南非黑人。”白人依然占据高管人员的72%。普遍被用来衡量不平等现象的基尼系数没有任何下降的迹象,仍然是世界最高的国家之一

取得这样的成果还是在实行一项名叫黑人经济赋权(BEE)计划的强势积极行动长达14年后,该计划制定了各式各样促进黑人参与所有权、管理、控制、技能开发、采购和创业的激励和限制措施。白人股权所有者被要求将股权出售给黑人,而这种股权交易往往高度杠杆化并且来源于公共资金。

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