Una Sudáfrica impaciente

NUEVA YORK – El Congreso Nacional Africano, que ha gobernado a Sudáfrica desde el fin del apartheid, tiene problemas graves. Lamentablemente, puede que el país no le vaya demasiado a la zaga.

En 1994, el CNA, con gran prestigio por haber puesto fin a decenios de gobierno blanco minoritario, llegó al poder con casi un monopolio de legitimidad política entre la mayoría negra del país. Junto con la autoridad moral del Presidente Nelson Mandela, esa condición ayudó al partido a tener en cuenta una gran diversidad de intereses y establecer un orden económico estable sin perder el apoyo de los votantes negros pobres, muchos de los cuales se sentían marginados en dicho orden. Aunque las esperanzas de sus partidarios eran grandes, también lo era su paciencia, dinámica reforzada por la mitología libertadora del CNA y unos primeros éxitos en el desarrollo de la vivienda, la electricidad y las subvenciones sociales.

Casi veinte años después, esa paciencia casi se ha agotado. Si bien la pobreza ha disminuido ligeramente desde 1994, la desigualdad ha aumentado en gran medida, alimentada por un desempleo extremado, la incapacidad estatal, la corrupción y las políticas afirmativas sesgadas a favor de los estratos superiores de la economía (por no hablar del pernicioso legado del apartheid).

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