L'impatience de l'Afrique du Sud

NEW YORK – Le Congrès national africain (ANC), qui gouverne l'Afrique du Sud depuis la fin de l'apartheid, connaît de grandes difficultés. Malheureusement, le pays n'est pas en meilleure posture.

En 1994 l'ANC, largement crédité d'avoir mis fin à des décennies de domination par la minorité blanche, est arrivé au pouvoir avec un quasi-monopole de la légitimité politique parmi la majorité noire du pays. En collaboration avec l'autorité morale du Président Nelson Mandela, ce statut a aidé le parti à accueillir un large éventail d'intérêts et à établir un ordre économique stable sans perdre le soutien des électeurs noirs pauvres, dont beaucoup étaient exclus de cet ordre. Bien que les espérances des défenseurs aient été grandes, leur patience l'était aussi : une dynamique renforcée par la mythologie de la libération de l'ANC et par les premiers succès : l'augmentation de l'aide au logement, des subventions sur l'électricité et de l'aide sociale.

Près de 20 ans plus tard, cette patience s'est élimée. Bien que la pauvreté ait légèrement diminué depuis 1994, les inégalités se sont fortement accentuées, alimentées par le chômage extrême, l'incapacité de l'État, la corruption et les politiques d'action positive biaisées par le cours supérieur de l'économie (sans parler de  l'héritage pernicieux de l'apartheid).

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