Young South African girl.

Relançar o crescimento sul-africano

JOANESBURGO – Um paradoxo da rápida expansão económica da África subsariana é o facto de a economia mais sofisticada da região não parecer fazer parte dela. Desde 2008, a África do Sul tem registado um crescimento médio anual do PIB de apenas 1,8%, menos de metade da taxa dos cinco anos anteriores. O Fundo Monetário Internacional espera que a produção no resto da África subsariana cresça a um ritmo de cerca de 5% no próximo ano, mas a África do Sul está projetada para gerir pouco mais de 1% do crescimento. Mais preocupante ainda é a taxa de desemprego do país - acima dos 25% - sendo uma das mais altas do mundo.

A África do Sul precisa de recuperar a iniciativa económica, construindo - literalmente - a África do futuro. Países do continente apressam-se a construir as estradas, os portos, as centrais elétricas, as escolas e os hospitais que precisarão para sustentarem o seu crescimento e satisfazerem as necessidades das suas populações urbanizadas e que crescem rapidamente. E o que eles precisam, acima de tudo, é de experiência.

Mas embora a África do Sul tenha setores na arquitetura, na construção e na engenharia altamente capazes, a sua quota atual de projetos estrangeiros construídos na África subsariana está situada apenas nos 7%, em comparação com os 32% relativos à China. De acordo com o McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), um esforço coordenado por parte de empresas de construção, bancos, instituições financeiras e ministérios do governo sul-africanos - em parceria com os seus homólogos de outros países africanos - poderia triplicar esta participação, criando potencialmente 80 mil novos postos de trabalho internos nas exportações de serviços de construção, até 2030.

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