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提振南非的多样性红利

开普敦—在经历了一次大开眼界、充满欢乐的南非之行后——这是我15年来第一次访问这个美丽的国家——离开时我有一种复杂的感觉。这个国家方兴未艾的经济和政治发展让生活在这里的人,以及像我这样的关注它的观察者,对它的未来感到喜忧参半。

四分之一个世纪前,南非脱离桎梏了它将近50年的种族隔离,追随曼德拉的“原谅但不忘却”的原则性愿景,开始了非凡的转型。占多数的黑人终于获得了治国话语权,选出了一个非国大党(ANC)政府,它没有征没或将持有在特权少数群体手中的私人产权国有化,这使得南非在众多非洲和其他地区从压迫性殖民统治中独立的国家中间显得鹤立鸡群。

相反,曼德拉领导的南非政府认为国家的多样性是长期统一和福祉的潜在资源,决心采取令人瞩目的包容性方针。这一模式启发了许多其他国家,包括一些仍由极权主义政权统治、用恐怖策略保持控制权力的国家。曼德拉的方针证明,有序、包容的转型是可能的,曾经饱受镇压和牢狱之灾的自由斗士可以转换身份,组成合法、有效的政府。

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