Dean Rohrer

当国家道歉之时

发自巴黎——近年突然频繁出现的国家级忏悔行动如今又登上了新闻栏。2008年,时任澳洲总理的陆克文代表国家向土著原居民道歉。几个月前英女王伊丽莎白二世也在访问爱尔兰时(对两国历史冲突所造成的伤害)展现出了感人的抱歉姿态。而法国总统萨科齐最近在访问高加索地区时则重申土耳其应当对1915年没落的奥斯曼帝国对亚美尼亚人进行的大屠杀“表示忏悔”。

但估计萨科齐同时会大吃一惊,因为同样的逻辑也可适用于法国对阿尔及利亚的忏悔行动,更别提那些在阿尔及利亚独立战争中站在法军一方的阿尔及利亚士兵。这些所谓“战斗团(Harki)”中的大多数人都在法军匆忙撤离之后遭遇了可悲的命运。而其中得以幸存并横渡地中海逃到法国的人则被抛弃在了少数民族聚居区——不但遭到隔离,而且无法享受任何政府服务。

对于许多政治领袖和分析家来说,忏悔是一种错位和泛滥的感性行为。他们认为历史是无情的。再说,这种道歉应该从何而起——又到何时为止呢?是否有人应该为十字军东征道歉?为17世纪法国国王路易十四旗下的军队对德国城市的破坏道歉?更别提拿破仑大军的所做所为了。而这样做的后果难道不会令历史变成一个悔恨抱歉的无限循环?

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