Nuevas fronteras para una vivienda asequible

SHANGHÁI – Proporcionar una vivienda decente y asequible es un creciente reto, tanto en las eoconomías desarrolladas como las en desarrollo. Puesto que la demanda supera con mucho la oferta, los efectos adversos (sobre la movilidad, la productividad y el crecimiento) son cada vez más obvios, ahora y en el futuro. Afortunadamente hay maneras de cerrar de manera importante esta brecha, haciendo uso principalmente de métodos de mercado en el nivel municipal.

En todo el planeta, 330 millones de hogares urbanos de ingresos bajos y moderados habitan en viviandas por debajo de los estándares o les cuesta tanto pagar sus hipotecas que deben renunciar a temas esenciales como la atención de salud y la educación. La cifra podría llegar en 2025 a los 440 millones, o cerca de 1,6 mil millones de personas (un tercio de la población urbana mundial), y esto ni siquiera cubre a los más pobres del mundo, que suelen vivir en las periferias de las ciudades, en la calle o como ocupantes, quedando fuera de las estimaciones censales.

Se estima que la inversión necesaria para reemplazar la infravivienda actual y construir las unidades adicionales necesarias para 2025 requeriría una inversión de cerca de $16 billones, una cifra inmensa por decir lo menos. Pero existen cuatro “palancas” clave que la pueden reducir entre un 20 y un 50%, hasta ser asequible (que signifique no más del 30% del ingreso) para los ingresos de los hogares que representan entre 50 y 80% de la renta media en la mayoría de las ciudades.

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