Le nuove frontiere dell'edilizia sociale

SHANGHAI – Fornire alloggi decorosi e a prezzi accessibili rappresenta una sfida crescente tanto nei paesi in via di sviluppo quanto in quelli sviluppati. Poiché la domanda supera di gran lunga l'offerta, gli effetti negativi su mobilità, produttività e crescita sono (o saranno) sempre più evidenti. Per fortuna, esistono modi per ovviare in modo sostanziale alla carenza di alloggi economici, che utilizzano approcci basati sul mercato a livello municipale.

In tutto il mondo, 330 milioni di famiglie urbane a basso e medio reddito vivono in case inadeguate o hanno difficoltà economiche tali, per via dei costi ad esse collegati, da essere costrette a rinunciare a spese essenziali come l'assistenza sanitaria e l'istruzione. Entro il 2025, il numero di queste famiglie potrebbe raggiungere i 440 milioni - cioè circa 1,6 miliardi di persone in totale (un terzo della popolazione urbana mondiale) -, una cifra che neanche comprende la parte di popolazione più povera, a livello mondiale, che vive al di fuori delle città, per la strada o in modo abusivo e, pertanto, non è censita.

Sostituire gli alloggi inadeguati e costruire le unità abitative supplementari che serviranno entro il 2025 richiederebbe un investimento stimato di 16.000 miliardi di dollari, una cifra quantomeno spaventosa. Tuttavia, agendo su quattro “leve" fondamentali è possibile ridurre il costo dell'edilizia abitativa del 20-50%, in tal modo rendendo gli alloggi accessibili (a un prezzo non superiore al 30% del reddito complessivo) alle famiglie che guadagnano il 50-80% del reddito mediano in gran parte delle città.

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