Les nouvelles frontières du logement abordable

SHANGHAI – Trouver un logement décent et abordable devient de plus en plus difficile, aussi bien dans les économies émergentes que développées. Parce que la demande est de loin supérieure à l'offre, les effets indésirables sur la mobilité, la productivité et la croissance se font (ou se feront) de plus en plus sentir. Heureusement, il existe des moyens pour réduire sensiblement l'écart des prix abordables du logement, en utilisant essentiellement des approches axées sur le marché à l'échelle municipale.

Dans le monde, 330 millions de ménages urbains à revenus faibles ou modestes vivent dans des logements insalubres ou sont placés sous une telle contrainte financière par leurs dépenses de logement, qu'ils doivent renoncer à certaines dépenses essentielles, comme les dépenses de santé et d'éducation. En 2025, ce chiffre pourrait atteindre 440 millions de ménages, soit environ 1,6 milliards de personnes (un tiers de la population urbaine mondiale) sans compter certaines personnes les plus pauvres du monde qui vivent souvent hors des villes, dans les rues des villes, ou comme squatteurs, ce qui fait qu'elles ne figurent pas dans les dernières estimations de recensement.

Remplacer les logements insalubres d'aujourd'hui et construire les unités supplémentaires nécessaires d'ici 2025 demanderait un investissement estimé à 16 milliards de dollars : voilà indubitablement un chiffre impressionnant. Mais il existe quatre « leviers » clés capables de réduire le coût de la prestation de logement de 20% à 50%, qui peuvent rendre ainsi les logements abordables (soit pas plus de 30% du revenu total) pour les ménages gagnant 50% à 80% du revenu médian dans la plupart des villes.

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