Employees of the state-owned English-language RT television network  YURI KOCHETKOV/AFP/Getty Images

锐实力的意义

华盛顿——近年来,俄罗斯和中国已经将大量资源投入到通常关乎“软实力”的竞技场上,软实力一词是美国政治学家约瑟夫·奈的发明,被理解为能够“通过吸引力和说服力来对他人施加影响”。无论是直接出面还是通过听话的代理,上述两个国家已经投入了数十亿美元来实现其媒体、文化、智囊、学术和其他领域全球影响力的增长。

尽管投入了巨额资金,但观察家——包括奈本人——却摸不着头脑,他们想不通这些专制政权为什么一直背负着软实力赤字,即使他们在国际上的姿态更加自信了。

中俄两国往往在全球公众舆论调查及软实力指数方面成绩不佳,从而导致吸引力和说服力与专制主义不相容的看法进一步增强。在国际上,独裁者并没有“赢得人心。”尽管如此,俄罗斯、中国和其他资源丰富、雄心勃勃的政权现在对境外施加的影响力却超过以往任何时候——而且奈所谓的包括军事力量或原始经济制裁在内“硬实力”并不是主要渠道。

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