"Soft Power" und der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus

Beim letztjährigen Weltwirtschaftsforum in Davos fragte George Carey, der ehemalige Erzbischof von Canterbury, US-Außenminister Colin Powell, warum sich die USA eigentlich ausschließlich auf ihre "Hard Power", ihre "harte" (militärische) Machtausübung, konzentrierten, statt sich auch auf "Soft Power"-Aktivitäten, also diplomatische Projekte zur Völkerverständigung, zu besinnen. Powell antwortete, dass die USA auf Hard Power zurückgegriffen hätten, um den Zweiten Weltkrieg zu gewinnen, doch er fuhr fort: "Was folgte unmittelbar auf die Hard Power? Stellten die USA auch nur gegenüber einer einzigen europäischen Nation irgendwelche Herrschaftsansprüche? Nein. Soft Power war Teil des Marshall-Plans¼ Dasselbe taten wir in Japan."

Nach dem Ende des Irakkrieges sprach ich auf einer Konferenz in Washington, die unter anderem von der US-Army gesponsert wurde, über das Konzept der Soft Power (das ich selbst entwickelt hatte). Einer der Sprecher auf dieser Konferenz war US-Verteidigungsminister Donald Rumsfeld. Nach einer Pressemitteilung "hörten die ranghöchsten Militärs aufmerksam und wohlwollend zu", doch als ein Anwesender aus dem Publikum Rumsfeld nach seiner Meinung zum Konzept der Soft Power fragte, antwortete dieser: "Ich habe keine Ahnung, was der Begriff bedeutet."

Eine von Rumsfelds Regeln ist, dass " Schwäche eine Provokation" sei. In einem gewissen Ausmaß hat er damit recht. Wie Osama bin Laden schon bemerkte, bevorzugen die Menschen ein starkes Zugpferd. Doch Macht (engl. "Power"), definiert als die Fähigkeit andere zu beeinflussen, hat viele verschiedene Gesichter, und Soft Power ist nicht gleichbedeutend mit Schwäche. Im Gegenteil: Gerade das Versagen , Soft Power effektiv einzusetzen, ist es, was Amerika im Kampf gegen den Terrorismus so stark schwächt.

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