Měkká síla a boj proti terorismu

Na světovém ekonomickém fóru ve švýcarském Davosu se loni někdejší arcibiskup z Canterbury George Carey dotázal amerického ministra zahraničí Colina Powella, proč se Spojené státy zjevně zaměřují pouze na svou tvrdou sílu, a nikoliv na sílu měkkou. Ministr Powell odvětil, že USA nasadily tvrdou sílu k vítězství ve druhé světové válce, ale pak pokračoval: „Co následovalo bezprostředně po tvrdé síle? Žádaly snad Spojené státy nadvládu nad jediným evropským státem? Ne. Měkká síla měla podobu Marshallova plánu… V Japonsku jsme učinili totéž."

Když skončila válka v Iráku, hovořil jsem o měkké síle (jejíž koncept jsem rozpracoval) na jedné washingtonské konferenci spolufinancované americkou armádou. Jedním z řečníků byl také ministr obrany Donald Rumsfeld. Podle jedné novinové reportáže „nejvyšší vojenští mocipáni účastně naslouchali", ale když se někdo zeptal Rumsfelda na názor na měkkou sílu, odpověděl: „Nevím, co to znamená."

Jedno z Rumsfeldových „pravidel" zní, že „slabost je provokativní". Do jisté míry má pravdu. Jak si všiml již Usáma bin Ládin, lidé mají rádi silné koně. Síla definovaná jako schopnost ovlivňovat ostatní však má mnoho různých podob a měkká síla není slabostí. Je to naopak právě neschopnost efektivně využívat měkkou sílu, co oslabuje Ameriku v boji proti terorismu.

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