软权力与反恐斗争

去年在瑞士达沃斯举行的"世界经济论坛"上,前坎特伯雷大主教乔治·凯利问美国国务卿柯林·鲍威尔为何美国似乎只注重硬权力而忽视软权力。鲍威尔国务卿回答说美国曾经运用硬权力赢得了第二次世界大战,但他继续道:"在硬权力之后是什么呢?美国有要求控制任何一个欧洲国家吗?没有。软权力是通过'马歇尔计划'实现的……我们对日本也采取了同样的举措。"

在伊拉克战争结束之后,我在美国军方主办的一次会议上谈到了软权力(我提出的一个概念)。会上的一位发言者是国防部长唐纳德·拉姆斯菲尔德。据新闻报道称,这位军方最高首脑在聆听(我的发言)时颇有心得,但当有人问他对于软权力的看法时,他却表示"我不清楚它的意思"。

拉姆斯菲尔德的一个原则是弱点招致攻击。从某种意义上讲,他是正确的。如奥萨马·本·拉登所言,人们总是喜欢强壮的马。但权力作为影响他人的一种能力,有着不同的形式,而软权力也并非弱点。相反,正是由于未能有效地运用软权力,是美国在反恐怖斗争中的力量被削弱了。

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