城市村落

美国剑桥—“我想成为它的一部分——纽约,纽约,” 弗兰克·辛纳屈(Frank Sinatra)这样歌颂这个吸引着无数全球最有雄心的人们的城市。他们中有艺术家和演员,也有商人和银行家。从某种程度上讲,这并不是难以解释的现象;像纽约市这样的大都市有着文化多样化的人口、跨国公司和各种天才个体,遍地都是机会。但大城市的影响比经济甚至文化力量深刻得多;城市可以从根本上改变人们的生活——甚至人们自己。

2010年,乔弗里·韦斯特(Geoffrey West)与一群研究者一起发现,不少社会经济指标——既有积极指标,也有消极指标——随地方人口的增加而增加。换句话说,城市越大,平均工资、生产率水平、人均专利数量、犯罪率、焦虑普遍性和艾滋病发病率都会越高。

事实上,如若城市规模翻倍,所有人均经济活动指标都会增加大约15%。这就是为何人们要来到大城市的原因;事实上,这也是城市兴旺的原因。

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