Pedro Molina

Die Sozialdemokratie in Lateinamerika lebt

MONTEVIDEO, URUGUAY – Unter den verschiedenen linksgerichteten Regierungen in Lateinamerika befinden sich neue und eher lautstark populistische Systeme (Venezuela, Bolivien, Ecuador), die offenbar die gesamte Aufmerksamkeit auf sich ziehen. Es gibt jedoch auch sozialdemokratische Kräfte in der lateinamerikanischen Politik – eine historische Neuigkeit in der Region –, die an Stärke gewinnen. In Brasilien, Chile und Uruguay beweist die Sozialdemokratie, dass sie funktionieren kann.

Was diese sozialdemokratischen Regierungen von ihren populistischen Gegenübern unterscheidet ist, dass sie aus einer Linken zusammengesetzt sind, die in konkurrierende, aus mehreren Parteien bestehende Demokratien integriert ist. Diese Sozialdemokraten waren einst Teil einer sozialistischen, revolutionären oder reformistischen Linken, die eng mit den Gewerkschaften verbunden war. Letzten Endes haben sie die Marktwirtschaft jedoch akzeptiert und entwickelten eine Tendenz zu ideologischer Mäßigung und begannen um Stimmen in der politischen Mitte zu kämpfen. Motiviert durch ihre politische Konkurrenz und ihre eigene linksgerichtete Ideologie, legten diese sozialdemokratischen Regierungen gleichzeitig Wert auf Wirtschaftswachstum und soziale Eingliederung.

Das Innovationspotenzial dieser Regierungen hängt von den ihnen zur Verfügung stehenden politischen Ressourcen und ihrer Macht ab. Die erste Regierung der Linken in der Geschichte Uruguays genießt in dieser Hinsicht Vergleichsvorteile, denn anders als in Brasilien und Chile regieren Uruguays Sozialdemokraten als Einparteien-Mehrheitsregierung. Das Parteienbündnis Frente Amplio (FA) vereint fast alle linksgerichteten Gruppen des Landes und besitzt die treue Unterstützung der Gewerkschaften.

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