Pedro Molina

日长夜大的拉美社会民主

乌拉圭,蒙特维的亚—在拉美诸国各种左翼政府中,有些新晋的、颇为高调的民粹主义政权(委内瑞拉、玻利维亚、厄瓜多尔)似乎吸引了所有人的目光。但在拉美政治中还有一支社会民主主义的力量—该地区一种历史性的新鲜事物—也正在壮大。在巴西、智利和乌拉圭,社会民主主义正在被证明是行得通的。

社会民主政府与民粹主义政府的不同之处在于它们是一支整合为竞争性、多党制的民主政体的左翼力量。这些社会民主主义者曾经是某支与工会紧密结盟的社会主义、革命派或改良派左翼的一部分。但他们最终接受了市场经济,开始淡化意识形态并在政治舞台的中心争取选票。同时,在政治竞争者和自身左派意识形态的驱动下,这些社会民主政府既强调经济增长,也主张社会包容。

这些政府的创新潜力依赖于他们所能支配的政治资源和权力。在这方面,乌拉圭历史上的第一届左翼政府具有一些比较优势。因为与巴西和智利不同,乌拉圭社会民主主义者的治国之道是一个一党多数政府。广泛阵线 (FA)集结了该国几乎所有的左翼党派并得到了工会的忠心支持。

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