Stockholm market Market in Sweden/brian colson/Flickr

Un renacer para la socialdemocracia

ESTAMBUL – Hoy en día, como la economía mundial está experimentando una transformación fundamental, los trabajadores de todo el mundo están viéndose sometidos a una gran presión. En particular en los países desarrollados, se deben ajustar las políticas sociales para prestar el apoyo que los grupos de menores ingresos necesitan, sin por ello dejar de fomentar el crecimiento y mejorar el bienestar.

Dicha presión ha sido implacable e ineludible. En los Estados Unidos, la remuneración real (ajustada a la inflación) para los hombres que sólo tenían el titulo de bachillerato se redujo en un 21 por ciento de 1979 a 2013. En gran parte de Europa, que brinda una mayor protección a los salarios, el desempleo se ha disparado, en particular desde que comenzó la crisis del euro en 2008. Alemania y algunos países del norte de Europa siguen siendo una excepción, si bien el mercado laboral alemán cuenta con un gran segmento de miniempleos de salario bajo.

El motor de esas tendencias es el cambio de la naturaleza del trabajo. Para empezar, los servicios han ido ganando terreno a escala mundial, en particular en las economías desarrolladas. De 1970 a 2012, la proporción de los servicios en el PIB de los países de la OCDE aumentó del 53 por ciento al 71 por ciento.

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