Stockholm market Market in Sweden/brian colson/Flickr

Vers une nouvelle social-démocratie

ISTANBUL – Dans le monde entier, les travailleurs sont soumis à de fortes pressions liées à la transformation fondamentale que traverse l’économie mondiale. En particulier dans les économies avancées, les politiques sociales doivent être ajustées pour venir en aide à la population active à bas revenus, tout en soutenant la croissance et en améliorant le bien-être des citoyens.

Les pressions sont incessantes et incontournables. Aux États-Unis, la rémunération réelle (ajustée à l’inflation) pour les salariés uniquement titulaires d’un diplôme d’études secondaires a chuté de 21 pour cent entre 1979 et 2013. Dans la plupart des pays européens, qui offrent pourtant une meilleure protection des salariés, les taux de chômage sont montés en flèche, en particulier depuis le début de la crise de l’euro en 2008. L’Allemagne et certains pays nordiques font figure d’exception, même si le marché du travail allemand comporte un large segment de petits emplois à bas salaires.

Les changements dans la nature du travail sont à l’origine de ces tendances. En premier lieu, les services ont gagné du terrain, partout dans le monde et surtout dans les économies développées. Entre 1970 et 2012, la part des services dans le PIB des pays de l’OCDE est passée de 53 pour cent à 71 pour cent.

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