Vigilancia y libertad en Estados Unidos

CAMBRIDGE – Desde el mismo momento en que Edward J. Snowden reveló que la Agencia de Seguridad Nacional de los Estados Unidos (NSA) reúne todo el tiempo ingentes cantidades de datos procedentes de comunicaciones electrónicas de ciudadanos estadounidenses y no estadounidenses por igual, la atención ha estado puesta en su situación personal. Pero la cuestión más importante, incluso antes de que Rusia le concediera asilo transitorio, es la situación de las libertades civiles en Estados Unidos. ¿Puede acusarse a este país de hipocresía, como lo han hecho Rusia, China y otros?

Para responder esta pregunta, es importante distinguir entre dos cuestiones que en el debate público se han mezclado: el espionaje electrónico dirigido contra entidades extranjeras y la vigilancia interna de los ciudadanos de un país por parte de su propio gobierno.

Ya antes de las revelaciones de Snowden, el ciberespionaje se había convertido en un importante punto de conflicto en las relaciones entre China y Estados Unidos, y fue objeto de discusión en la “cumbre en mangas de camisa” de junio entre los presidentes Barack Obama y Xi Jinping. Ambos gobiernos acordaron crear un grupo de trabajo especial para tratar el asunto.

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