A vigilância e a liberdade americana

CAMBRIDGE – Desde que Edward J. Snowden divulgou a recolha sistemática por parte da Agência Nacional de Segurança (NSA) de uma enorme quantidade de dados de comunicações electrónicas geradas por cidadãos norte-americanos e estrangeiros, a atenção tem sido prodigamente gasta com o seu estatuto pessoal. Mas a questão mais importante, ainda antes de a Rússia lhe ter concedido asilo temporário, é a situação em que se encontram as liberdades civis norte-americanas. Serão os EUA culpados de hipocrisia, conforme acusações formuladas pela Rússia, China e outros países?

Para responder a esta questão, é importante distinguir entre dois temas que se mesclaram no debate público: a espionagem electrónica dirigida contra entidades estrangeiras e a vigilância interna do governo aos seus cidadãos.

Antes das divulgações de Snowden, a espionagem cibernética tornara-se um ponto importante de discórdia nas relações entre os EUA e a China. A questão foi debatida na "cimeira informal" de Junho, que reuniu os presidentes Barack Obama e Xi Jinping, tendo os governos dos dois países acordado na criação de um grupo de trabalho especial para tratar este tema.

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