La surveillance et les libertés américaines

CAMBRIDGE – Depuis que Edward J. Snowden a dévoilé le programme de l’Agence nationale de la sécurité pour la collecte massive de données de communications électroniques générées tant par les citoyens américains que par les citoyens étrangers, toute l’attention s’est portée sur sa situation personnelle. Mais l’état des libertés civiles des Américains était une question encore plus importante, même avant que la Russie lui ait accordé l’asile temporaire. Les États-Unis sont-ils coupables d’hypocrisie, ce dont la Russie, la Chine et d’autres pays l’ont accusé?

Pour répondre à la question, il est important de distinguer entre deux activités de renseignement qui se sont confondues dans le débat public : l’espionnage électronique contre les entités étrangères et la surveillance intérieure par l’État de ses propres citoyens.

Avant les révélations de Snowden, le cyber espionnage est devenu un point de discorde majeur dans les relations entre les États-Unis et la Chine. Il a été discuté au « sommet à manches courtes » de juin entre les présidents Barack Obama et Xi Jinping conduisant à une entente entre les deux gouvernements pour la création d’un groupe spécial d’étude de la question.

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