Una forma más inteligente de recaudar

ATENAS/BERLÍN – A lo largo y ancho de la Unión Europea y el resto del mundo, muchos gobiernos parecen enfrentarse a un dilema insoluble: las deudas nacionales contraídas se han convertido en una pesada carga que los obliga a recortar gastos y aumentar los impuestos en un intento de reducir el déficit. Pero estas medidas desalientan el consumo, que es necesario para impulsar la actividad económica y el crecimiento. Conforme de la austeridad se pasa a discutir la implementación de medidas que estimulen el crecimiento, la búsqueda del equilibrio justo exige pensar en un modelo impositivo más inteligente.

Cuando los gobiernos se enfrentan a la difícil tarea de cobrar impuestos, suelen pensar en el impuesto sobre la renta, el impuesto de sociedades y el impuesto al valor agregado (IVA). Pero hay también otros mecanismos que permiten recaudar cifras considerables, con un efecto negativo mucho menor en la economía. Son los gravámenes que ya se aplican al consumo de electricidad y combustibles fósiles.

Estos impuestos ya son de por sí fundamentales para la reducción de las emisiones de dióxido de carbono causantes del cambio climático. Pero investigaciones recientes han demostrado que también sirven para recaudar para las arcas públicas sin pagar por ello un alto costo en términos de crecimiento económico.

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