Les Balkans dans la torpeur

Sarajevo amp#45;amp#45; Il y a 13 ans tout juste, le leadership américain mettait fin à trois ans et demie de guerre en Bosnie en signant les accords de Dayton. Aujourd’hui, ce pays est en danger d’effondrement. Comme en 1995, il faudra en appeler à la détermination et à l’unité transatlantique, si nous ne voulons pas trébucher sur une nouvelle crise.

Milorad Dodik, le premier ministre de la République serbe de Bosnie, naguère le protégé de la communauté internationale (surtout des Etats-Unis) pour son opposition au parti démocratique serbe, a adopté le programme de ce parti, sans pour autant être terni par son lot de génocides. Ses visées à long-terme sont claires: placer l’entité serbe, la Republika Srpska, en position de se séparer, si l’occasion se présente. Il tire profit des faiblesses structurelles de la constitution, de l’état de léthargie où est plongée la communauté internationale, ainsi que de l’incapacité de l’Union européenne à rester fidèle à ses conditions. En deux ans, il a largement fait reculer les progrès réels accomplis en Bosnie depuis 13 ans, il a considérablement affaibli les institutions de l’Etat et pratiquement stoppé l’accession du pays au statut d’Etat opérationnel, compatible avec l’Union européenne.

Dodik a vu ses agissements encouragés par la Russie et les pétrodollars. Avec cela, Haris Silajdzic, son rival et président de la présidence collégiale de Bosnie-Herzégovine, insiste sur la nécessité de fondre les deux entités qui composent la Bosnie, afin de ne créer qu’un seul pays, non fédéral. Dodik prétend respecter les accords de Dayton, Silajdzic souhaite y apporter des révisions, mais ils en violent l’un et l’autre le principe de base: celui d’un système fédéral dans les limites d’un seul état. Cette action conjuguée est néfaste et constitue le cœur de la crise en Bosnie aujourd’hui.

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