Le 60° anniversaire de la Nakbeh, la catastrophe palestinienne

Alors que l'Etat d'Israël célèbre son 60° anniversaire, les Palestiniens se remémorent la Nakbeh , autrement dit la "catastrophe" palestinienne, l'Histoire de leur dépossession, de leur occupation et de leur errance. Mais pour les deux cotés, de même que pour les autres puissances qui ont joué un rôle dans les événements, ce qui s'est passé en 1948 et ce qui a suivi - l'occupation de ce qui reste de la Palestine historique depuis 1967 - constitue un échec tragique.

La première responsabilité en incombe à Israël en raison de son occupation militaire permanente et de ses colonies de peuplement illégales. Malgré un discours en faveur de la paix, le refus d'Israël de retirer son armée des territoires occupés bafoue la résolution 242 du Conseil de sécurité qui mentionne dans son préambule "l'inadmissibilité de l'acquisition de territoire par la guerre".

Mais la communauté internationale, à différents niveaux les Palestiniens et les Arabes ont aussi leur part de responsabilité. Les déconvenues ont commencé avant même la création d'Israël et la Nakbeh : la commission King-Crane de 1919, le rapport Peel de 1937, le Livre blanc britannique de 1939, la commission d'enquête anglo-américaine de 1945 et le plan de partition de l'ONU de 1947. Il y a eu depuis les résolutions 194, 242 et 338 de l'ONU, le plan Rogers, le plan Mitchell, le plan Tenet, Camp David, Taba, le plan saoudien, la "feuille de route", l'Initiative de Genève, les élections et l'Initiative de paix arabe. 

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