six day war israeli tanks Three Lions/Getty Images

A guerra dos seis dias 50 anos depois

NOVA IORQUE - O mundo está prestes a assinalar o 50.º aniversário da guerra de Junho de 1967 entre Israel e o Egipto, a Jordânia e a Síria - um conflito que continua a destacar-se numa região com uma história moderna amplamente definida pela violência. A guerra durou menos de uma semana, mas o seu legado permanece pronunciado meio século depois.

A guerra em si foi desencadeada por um ataque preventivo israelita contra a Força Aérea do Egipto, em resposta à decisão tomada por este país de expulsar uma força de paz das Nações Unidas de Gaza e da Península do Sinai e de fechar o Estreito de Tiran à navegação israelita. Israel atacou primeiro, mas a maioria dos observadores considerou esta medida como um acto legítimo de autodefesa contra uma ameaça iminente.

Israel não tinha intenção de lutar em mais do que uma frente, mas a guerra expandiu-se rapidamente quando a Jordânia e a Síria entraram no conflito do lado do Egipto. Foi uma decisão dispendiosa para os países árabes. Depois de apenas seis dias de combates, Israel controlava a Península do Sinai e a Faixa de Gaza, os Montes Golã, a Cisjordânia e a totalidade de Jerusalém. A dimensão do novo Israel era três vezes superior à do antigo. Lembrava curiosamente o Génesis: seis dias de intenso esforço seguidos de um dia de descanso, neste caso a assinatura de um cessar-fogo.

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