six day war israeli tanks Three Lions/Getty Images

Cinquant’anni dopo la guerra dei sei giorni

NEW YORK – Il mondo sta per celebrare il cinquantesimo anniversario della guerra tra Israele, Egitto, Giordania e Siria del giugno 1967; un conflitto che continua a contraddistinguere una regione con una storia moderna segnata in gran parte dalla violenza. La guerra è durata meno di una settimana, ma la sua eredità continua ad essere marcata anche mezzo secolo dopo.

La guerra fu provocata da un attacco preventivo contro le forzee aree egiziane in risposta alla decisione dell’Egitto di espellere la forza di pace delle Nazioni Unite da Gaza e dalla penisola del Sinai e di chiudere gli stretti di Tiran ai mercantili israeliani. Israele colpì per primo, ma molti osservatori considerarono la sua mossa come un atto legittimo di difesa contro una minaccia imminente.

Israele non aveva intenzione di combattere su più fronti, ma la guerra si diffuse rapidamente e sia la Giordania che la Siria entrarono in conflitto a sostegno dell’Egitto. Questa decisione costò cara ai paesi arabi, infatti dopo soli sei giorni di combattimenti Israele controllava la penisola del Sinai e lo stretto di Gaza, le Alture del Golan, la Cisgiordania e tutta Gerusalemme. Il nuovo assetto di Israele era diventato tre volte più grande del vecchio e le modalità ricordano stranamente quelle della genesi, ovvero sei giorni di sforzi intensi seguiti da un giorno di riposo, che nel caso di Israele fu la firma del cessate il fuoco.

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