La seguridad de segunda fila del Sinaí

SHARM EL-SHEIK – A raíz de un ataque en el que en agosto murieron 16 agentes de la seguridad en la península del Sinaí, el ejército egipcio ha intensificado la presión contra los yijadistas en ella. Los generales han prometido una campaña prolongada para extinguir la amenaza terrorista, llevando hasta allí tanques y disparando misiles contra campamentos de entrenamiento para corroborar su promesa, pero, si la actuación en el pasado es indicativa de los resultados futuros, es probable que la ofensiva sea fugaz. Las fuerzas armadas nunca han mostrado demasiado interés en estabilizar el Sinaí y las operaciones anteriores para deshacerse de los yijadistas no les han impedido regresar.

Los egipcios achacan la incapacidad de su ejército para vigilar el Sinaí a las restricciones impuestas por el tratado de paz egipcio-israelí. El acuerdo bilateral estipula que Egipto sólo puede estacionar 22.000 soldados en la parte occidental de la península, conocida como zona A. En la sección oriental fronteriza con Israel, conocida como zona C, la presencia egipcia está limitada al personal de las Fuerzas Centrales de Seguridad. Éstas, compuestas de cadetes mal capacitados, se limitan a desempeñar “funciones normales de policía”, según el anexo sobre la seguridad del acuerdo.

Los yijadistas han explotado el vacío en materia de seguridad creado por la revolución del año pasado para reforzar su presencia en el Sinaí. Como la amenaza ha aumentado, Israel ha permitido a Egipto aumentar las tropas en la península hasta niveles superiores a los estipulados en los acuerdos de paz, pero Egipto no ha aprovechado esa oferta. El pasado mes de agosto, los israelíes permitieron la presencia en la zona C de siete batallones y veinte tanques, pero las fuerzas armadas egipcias nunca llevaron allí el número completo de tropas suplementarias y ni siquiera se molestaron en transportar los tanques allende el canal de Suez.

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