A China é amiga de África?

YAOUNDÉ – Para muitos países em desenvolvimento, o investimento directo estrangeiro (IDE) é visto como algo muito positivo. As empresas internacionais podem levar dinheiro, competências, tecnologia e elevados padrões éticos para um país anfitrião. Mas nem sempre todos olham para esses investidores de forma favorável: muitos são acusados de intromissão política, de poluírem o ambiente, de explorarem os trabalhadores e de outras práticas sem escrúpulos. Este debate é particularmente animado em relação ao investimento chinês em África - um continente com uma longa história de exploração política, económica e comercial por potências estrangeiras.

A chamada “escola neocolonialista”, popular entre os cépticos da China, considera a relação económica da China com África como essencialmente imperial. Está, segundo eles, concentrada exclusivamente em extrair o máximo de lucro, a curto prazo, não dando muita atenção aos padrões de governação e muito menos acolhendo os objectivos de desenvolvimento a longo prazo dos países.

Outros consideram que a relação não é tanto uma questão de exploração mas mais uma simples função dos princípios do mercado livre do capitalismo, segundo os quais aqueles que não têm uma forte posição de negociação têm de aceitar termos difíceis. Por outro lado, há outros que têm um ponto de vista mais agradável: As relações sino-africanas constituem uma parceria, de acordo com a Nova Parceria para o Desenvolvimento de África, uma organização pan-africana que procura conceder plenos poderes aos estados africanos nas suas relações internacionais.

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