EU history and future Ian Waldie/Getty Images

欧盟大西洋一体化的逆转

马德里——许多人将欧盟等同于欧洲,一直以来忽略了若干细微差别。当然,从历史的角度看,曾经为结束各成员伯国长达数百年的战争和暴力冲突作出贡献的欧盟现在与欧洲1945年前的表现截然相反。从地理角度看,欧盟的持续扩大使得它比以往任何时候都能更好的反映出欧洲大陆的整体风貌。

但即将降临的英国退欧已经提醒我们有些根本因素到目前为止一直隐藏着:欧洲扩张的趋势并非不可逆转,同时,欧盟作为政治实体的长期存在不能也不应被视为理所当然的。

多年来欧盟(以及之前欧洲共同体)所走过的轨迹由两大关键因素决定。一方面,欧洲一体化已经走向更深层次,而另一方面,一体化的好处已经开始惠及越来越多的国家。1989年柏林墙的倒塌为欧洲带来了更多机遇——同时也带来了重大的挑战。随着共产主义的垮台,雅尔塔会议所创造的分裂的欧洲已经不见踪影,而欧盟的扩张也不再局限于属于西方阵营的国家。

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