Confrontation à Bali

BALI – La rencontre internationale qui a lieu ce mois-ci à Bali établira un cadre visant à empêcher la catastrophe imminente du changement climatique/réchauffement planétaire. Il fait désormais peu de doutes que les gaz à effet de serre, tels que le dioxyde de carbone, ont de fortes répercussions sur le climat ; et que les changements y afférents auront des coûts énormes. Il ne s’agit plus de savoir si nous avons les moyens de faire quelque chose, mais plutôt de contrôler les émissions de façon équitable et efficace.

Si le Protocole de Kyoto constitue une avancée majeure, il a pourtant mis de côté 75 % des sources d’émissions de CO²: les Etats-Unis, plus gros pollueurs, ont refusé de le signer (le nouveau gouvernement australien ayant signé le protocole, les Etats-Unis sont désormais les seuls réticents parmi les pays industriels avancés). Les pays en développement ne sont pas soumis à des obligations et pourtant, dans un futur relativement proche, ils seront à l’origine de la moitié ou plus des émissions. Rien n’a été fait au sujet de la déforestation, qui contribue presque autant que les Etats-Unis à accroître les concentrations de gaz à effet de serre. 

Les Etats-Unis et la Chine se sont lancés dans la course du meilleur pollueur : si l’Amérique était loin devant, dans les quelques années à venir, la Chine remportera ce titre douteux. L’Indonésie arrive en troisième position, compte tenu de sa déforestation à vivre allure.

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