Paul Lachine

Faut-il contenir la Chine ?

CAMBRIDGE – Ce mois-ci c'est le 40° anniversaire du voyage secret de Kissinger à Pékin qui a lancé le processus de rapprochement entre les USA et la Chine après une rupture de leurs relations diplomatiques durant 20 ans. Ce voyage et la visite du président Nixon en Chine qui a suivi ont constitué un réalignement majeur de la Guerre froide. Les deux pays ont mis de coté leur hostilité réciproque pour contenir ensemble une possible expansion de l'URSS.

Aujourd'hui l'URSS n'existe plus et la Chine est une puissance montante. Pour certains Américains, la montée en puissance de la Chine ne peut être pacifique et de ce fait les USA doivent prendre des mesures pour contenir la République populaire. Beaucoup de responsables chinois considèrent que c'est la stratégie que les USA appliquent déjà. Ils se trompent.

Durant la Guerre froide, le confinement de l'URSS s'est traduit par l'arrêt presque total du commerce entre les deux puissances et un sérieux coup de frein aux contacts entre leurs citoyens. Aujourd'hui au contraire les USA ont des échanges commerciaux intenses avec la Chine, ainsi que des échanges au niveau de la population, avec notamment 125 000 étudiants chinois dans les universités américaines.

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