История наносит ответный удар

МАДРИД – Когда закончилась холодная война после распада Советского Союза, победители никак не могли избавиться от самодовольства, поскольку были уверены, что их триумф был неизбежен с самого начала. Многие на Западе считали, что победа либерального капитализма над тоталитарным социализмом обязательно положит конец войнам и кровавым революциям. Сегодня два влиятельных лидера – президент России Владимир Путин и председатель КНР Си Цзиньпин – демонстрируют, насколько надуманной была эта точка зрения.

Преобладающий на Западе взгляд был отражен в книге Фрэнсиса Фукуямы 1992 года «Конец истории и последний человек», которая предполагала, что западная либеральная демократия была конечной точкой социокультурной эволюции человека. Другими словами, христианское учение о конце света было преобразовано в светский исторический постулат.

Эта трансформация не была чем-то новым. Возвестили о ней еще Гегель и Маркс. В 1842 году историк Томас Арнольд заявил, с типичной викторианской самоуспокоенностью, что царствование королевы Виктории содержало «явственные признаки завершенности времени». Все эти исторические пророки – независимо от того, предвещали ли они реализацию абсолютной идеи или диктатуру пролетариата – абсолютно ошибались.

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