历史的反击

马德里——冷战结束、苏联解体时,胜利者们志得意满,因为他们认定自己必然会取得胜利。西方许多人认为自由资本主义战胜极权社会主义一定能结束战争和血腥革命。今天,俄罗斯总统普京和中国国家主席习近平这两大巨头证明这种这种观点是多么牵强附会。

弗朗西斯·福山1992年的著作《历史终结点和最后一个人》反映了西方的主流观点,书中认定人类社会文化进步的终点是西方式的自由民主。换言之,基督教末世论变成了世俗历史的先决条件。

类似这样的转变其实不是新鲜事。黑格尔和马克思就曾经坚信同样的观点。1842年,历史学家托马斯·阿诺德带着典型维多利亚式的洋洋得意宣告维多利亚女王所统治的王国“清楚地昭示了历史长河的完满。”无论倡导实现某种绝对理念还是无产阶级专政,事实证明所有这些历史先知的预言都离事实相去甚远。

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