后国家幻象

马德里—德国哲学家尤尔根·哈贝马斯(Jürgen Habermas)将我们的时代定义为“后国家身份时代”。俄罗斯总统普京肯定不同意。

事实上,当前的全球化时代的一个大悖论是对同质性的追求伴随着对种族和宗教之“根”的渴求。即使在统一的欧洲,民族主义和排外主义也从未消失,爱因斯坦所思考的“恶意幻想”(malignant fantasy)势力仍根深蒂固。

在20世纪90年代的巴尔干战争中,在同一片土地上共同生活了几个世纪的社区以及从小一起长大、在同一间学校上学的个体之间激烈地打斗着。用弗洛伊德学派的话说,身份退化为对微小差异的自恋。

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