La paix par la séparation

MADRID – En 1996, Benyamin Netanyahou remportait les élections législatives en rassemblant de larges circonscriptions contre la campagne du Premier ministre de l’époque, Shimon Pérès, consistant à « diviser Jérusalem. » Près de vingt ans plus tard, Netanyahou demeure voué à de vieux slogans sans substance autour d’une « Jérusalem unifiée » – conception qui pourrait à nouveau faire échouer le processus de paix israélo-palestinien.

Alors que le secrétaire d’État américain John Kerry s’apprête à présenter un accord-cadre en direction d’une dernière phase des négociations de paix entre Israéliens et Palestiniens, la position intransigeante de Netanyahou autour d’Israël voue purement et simplement la démarche à l’échec. Dans un ultime effort d’amélioration des chances de succès de cette proposition, le président américain Barack Obama – qui depuis le début de son second mandat s’applique largement à ne pas endosser de rôle proactif dans le processus de paix – a rencontré Netanyahou à la Maison Blanche afin de l’amener à tempérer sa position.

Netanyahou ne devrait cependant pas facilement changer d’avis – d’autant plus qu’il est confronté à une pression politique certaine sur le plan intérieur. Depuis la prise de Jérusalem-Est à l’issue de la guerre des Six Jours de 1967, la classe politique du pays considère la ville comme la « capitale unifiée et éternelle » d’Israël – une conception dont ces acteurs se refusent encore et toujours à s’affranchir.

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