Der Zusammenbruch des Nahen Ostens

JERUSALEM – Die Horrormeldungen aus dem Nordirak sowie das anhaltende Gemetzel im syrischen Bürgerkrieg sind Zeichen einer tektonischen Verschiebung im Nahen Osten. Fast 100 Jahre nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg bricht das nach der Auflösung des Osmanischen Reiches begründete regionale Staatensystem auseinander.

Die derzeitige Landkarte des Nahen Ostens wurde von den imperialen westlichen Siegermächten Großbritannien und Frankreich während des Ersten Weltkriegs und danach gezeichnet.  Noch vor Ende des Krieges schloss man ein von den Diplomaten Sir Mark Sykes und François George-Picot verfasstes Abkommen, in dem man die Einflusssphären der jeweiligen Länder in der gesamten Levante abgrenzte – das aber Geschichte, ethnische und religiöse Traditionen und Zugehörigkeiten sowie den Willen der lokalen Völker vollkommen außer Acht ließ.

So entstanden die heutigen Staaten Irak, Syrien und Libanon als eigenständige, unabhängige Gemeinwesen. Ihre Grenzen wurden willkürlich und künstlich gezogen und keiner dieser Staaten hatte jemals in dieser Form existiert. (Der Fall Palästinas war aufgrund der widersprüchlichen Versprechungen der Briten gegenüber Arabern und Juden noch komplizierter).

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