La crise au Moyen-Orient

JERUSALEM – Les récits horribles sur la situation au Nord de l'Irak, ainsi que la poursuite des massacres de la guerre civile en Syrie, indiquent que de profonds bouleversements sont à l'œuvre au Moyen-Orient. Près de 100 ans après la Première Guerre mondiale, le système étatique régional mis en place après la dissolution de l'Empire Ottoman se délite.

La carte contemporaine du Moyen-Orient a été dessinée par les puissances impériales occidentales victorieuses, la Grande-Bretagne et la France, pendant et après la Première Guerre mondiale. Alors que la guerre faisait encore rage, ces deux pays ont signé un accord rédigé par les diplomates Sir Mark Sykes et François George-Picot, en vue de délimiter leurs sphères d'influence respectives au Levant. Cet accord négligeait complètement l'histoire de la région, les traditions ethniques et religieuses, les affiliations et la volonté des populations locales.

Les États modernes d'Irak, de Syrie et du Liban sont nés de cette séparation, comme des entités distinctes et indépendantes. Leurs frontières ont été dessinées arbitrairement et artificiellement : aucune n'avait jamais existé sous une telle forme. (Le cas de la Palestine fut encore plus complexe, en raison des promesses contradictoires de la Grande-Bretagne faites aux Arabes et aux Juifs).

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