Narendra Modi Election Victory Partha Sarkar/ZumaPress

¿Es esto el fin del nehruísmo?

NUEVA DELHI – La victoria del Partido Popular Indio (Bharatiya Janata Party) y de su líder, Narendra Modi, en la elección general celebrada en India el mes pasado plantea una pregunta crucial sobre el futuro del país. El BJP se abrió paso hasta el poder con una plataforma de nacionalismo agresivo y corporativismo promercado. ¿Significa esto el final del consenso socioeconómico mantenido en India desde los tiempos del gobierno fundacional del primer ministro socialista democrático Jawaharlal Nehru?

El “consenso nehruísta” facilitó la maduración democrática de la India, dejando espacio para los muy variados intereses presentes en el país sin permitir que ningún grupo o sector dominara la naciente nación-estado. Hoy está de moda denunciar el socialismo nehruísta como un sistema corrupto e ineficiente que condenó a la India a un largo período de crecimiento económico lento, pero el modelo nehruísta se basaba en la convicción de que en un país con niveles extremos de pobreza y desigualdad, el objetivo de la política pública debía ser mejorar el bienestar de los más pobres, carenciados y marginalizados.

En tiempos de Nehru, el mejor modo de lograr ese objetivo era crear estructuras de propiedad pública y control estatal de los recursos, mientras se usaba la intervención estatal para dar un impulso a las capacidades de la economía. Claro que la visión económica de Nehru tuvo sus defectos; por ejemplo, dio lugar al denominado “raj [reino] de las licencias, los permisos y las cuotas”, que suponía un control gubernamental asfixiante de la actividad empresarial, lo que a su vez mantuvo los índices de crecimiento de la India por debajo de los de sus vecinos del sudeste asiático.

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