Narendra Modi Election Victory Partha Sarkar/ZumaPress

¿Es esto el fin del nehruísmo?

NUEVA DELHI – La victoria del Partido Popular Indio (Bharatiya Janata Party) y de su líder, Narendra Modi, en la elección general celebrada en India el mes pasado plantea una pregunta crucial sobre el futuro del país. El BJP se abrió paso hasta el poder con una plataforma de nacionalismo agresivo y corporativismo promercado. ¿Significa esto el final del consenso socioeconómico mantenido en India desde los tiempos del gobierno fundacional del primer ministro socialista democrático Jawaharlal Nehru?

El “consenso nehruísta” facilitó la maduración democrática de la India, dejando espacio para los muy variados intereses presentes en el país sin permitir que ningún grupo o sector dominara la naciente nación-estado. Hoy está de moda denunciar el socialismo nehruísta como un sistema corrupto e ineficiente que condenó a la India a un largo período de crecimiento económico lento, pero el modelo nehruísta se basaba en la convicción de que en un país con niveles extremos de pobreza y desigualdad, el objetivo de la política pública debía ser mejorar el bienestar de los más pobres, carenciados y marginalizados.

En tiempos de Nehru, el mejor modo de lograr ese objetivo era crear estructuras de propiedad pública y control estatal de los recursos, mientras se usaba la intervención estatal para dar un impulso a las capacidades de la economía. Claro que la visión económica de Nehru tuvo sus defectos; por ejemplo, dio lugar al denominado “raj [reino] de las licencias, los permisos y las cuotas”, que suponía un control gubernamental asfixiante de la actividad empresarial, lo que a su vez mantuvo los índices de crecimiento de la India por debajo de los de sus vecinos del sudeste asiático.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/r2FswFp/es;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now