Narendra Modi Election Victory Partha Sarkar/ZumaPress

尼赫鲁的背水一战?

新德里—印度人民党(Bharatiya Janata Party)及其领导人莫迪(Narendra Modi)在上个月的印度大选中获得了胜利,这引发了一个关于印度未来的关键问题。印度人民党在激进民族主义和亲商社团主义的背景下获得了权力斗争的压倒性胜利,这是否意味着可追溯到印度首任总理、社会民主党人尼赫鲁的社会经济共识走向终结?

 “尼赫鲁共识”促进了印度民主的成熟,协调了印度的多样化利益,没有让任何一个群体或部分主宰这个方兴未艾的民族国家。今天,很多人指责尼赫鲁社会主义是一个腐败而低效的制度,导致印度多年来经济增长低迷。但其核心是这样一种信念:在这片极端贫困和不公平之地,政府政策的目标必须是改善最贫困、最无助、最边缘人群的福利。

在尼赫鲁时代,实现这一目标的最佳办法是建立公共所有权和国家控制资源,同时通过政府干预提振经济能力。当然,尼赫鲁的经济愿景尤其漏洞,比如,这催生了所谓的“执照许可配额统治”(license-permit-quota Raj),政府控制扼杀了企业家活动,反过来导致印度增长不及南亚邻国。

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